Sunday, March 15, 2020

Mixture Definition and Examples in Science

Mixture Definition and Examples in Science In chemistry, a mixture forms when  two or more substances are combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity. Chemical bonds between the components are neither broken nor formed. Note that even though the chemical properties of the components havent changed, a mixture may exhibit new physical properties, like boiling point and melting point. For example, mixing together water and alcohol produces a mixture that has a higher boiling point and lower melting point than alcohol (lower boiling point and higher boiling point than water). Key Takeaways: Mixtures A mixture is defined as the result of combining two or more substances, such that each maintains its chemical identity. In other words, a chemical reaction does not occur between components of a mixture.Examples include combinations of salt and sand, sugar and water, and blood.Mixtures are classified based on how uniform they are and on the particle size of components relative to each other.Homogeneous mixtures have a uniform composition and phase throughout their volume, while heterogeneous mixtures do not appear uniform and may consist of different phases (e.g., liquid and gas).Examples of types of mixtures defined by particle size include colloids, solutions, and suspensions. Examples of Mixtures Flour and sugar may be combined to form a mixture.Sugar and water form a mixture.Marbles and salt may be combined to form a mixture.Smoke is a mixture of solid particles and gases. Types of Mixtures Two broad categories of mixtures are heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout the composition (e.g. gravel), while homogeneous mixtures have the same phase and composition, no matter where you sample them (e.g., air). The distinction between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures is a matter of magnification or scale. For example, even air can appear to be heterogeneous if your sample only contains a few molecules, while a bag of mixed vegetables may appear homogeneous if your sample is an entire truckload full of them. Also note, even if a sample consists of a single element, it may form a heterogeneous mixture. One example would be a mixture of pencil lead and diamonds (both carbon). Another example could be a mixture of gold powder and nuggets. Besides being classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous, mixtures may also be described according to the particle size of the components: Solution: A chemical solution contains very small particle sizes (less than 1 nanometer in diameter). A solution is physically stable and the components cannot be separated by decanting or centrifuging the sample. Examples of solutions include air (gas), dissolved oxygen in water (liquid), and mercury in gold amalgam (solid), opal (solid), and gelatin (solid). Colloid: A colloidal solution appears homogeneous to the naked eye, but particles are apparent under microscope magnification. Particle sizes range from 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer. Like solutions, colloids are physically stable. They exhibit the Tyndall effect. Colloid components cant be separated using decantation, but may be isolated by centrifugation. Examples of colloids include hair spray (gas), smoke (gas), whipped cream (liquid foam), blood (liquid),   Suspension: Particles in a suspension are often large enough that the mixture appears heterogeneous. Stabilizing agents are required to keep the particles from separating. Like colloids, suspensions exhibit the Tyndall effect. Suspensions may be separated using either decantation or centrifugation. Examples of suspensions include dust in air (solid in gas), vinaigrette (liquid in liquid), mud (solid in liquid), sand (solids blended together), and granite (blended solids). Examples That Are Not Mixtures Just because you mix two chemicals together, dont expect youll always get a mixture! If a chemical reaction occurs, the identity of a reactant changes. This is not a mixture. Combining vinegar and baking soda results in a reaction to produce carbon dioxide and water. So, you dont have a mixture. Combining an acid and a base also does not produce a mixture. Sources De Paula, Julio; Atkins, P. W.  Atkins Physical Chemistry  (7th ed.).Petrucci R. H., Harwood W. S., Herring F. G. (2002).  General Chemistry, 8th Ed. New York: Prentice-Hall.Weast R. C., Ed. (1990).  CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics. Boca Raton: Chemical Rubber Publishing Company.Whitten K.W., Gailey K. D. and Davis R. E. (1992).  General chemistry, 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

I will download directions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

I will download directions - Essay Example Integrity is one of those unfortunate words used ruthlessly in the United States of America but no attempt is ever made at arriving at the purpose of the frequent usage of the word. One of the reasons behind the tragedy is that often in this world, the people try to establish in others what they are devoid of themselves. One must say: â€Å"why do you preach what you do not do yourself†? When one teaches the other, the other asks for the same and the conflict begins. It means the lack of integrity brings about the downfall of nations by indulging them in warfare. Oh! My life is getting tougher day by day. Can you have a look at my course? The syllabus is not allowing me to spend my one minute for luxuries around me. The luxuries are appealing me with startling eyes. The world is inviting me for the charm, beauty and joys it has for me. I am confused which way to go. I am puzzled and something voicing from my inside; no way but to be honest with my studies. The policy orders me to meet the required studies daily. It gives me the deadline but invokes my energy to get my work done not waiting for the last minute. I should have done it much before the deadline. That is cruel for I should have some time to spend in the jocund companies of my friends. The Policy expects me to do so like one expects from the armies to be alert and to the point. For me to abide by the rules, policies, assignments and expectations, it is like a huge adventure. Let me try my best and hope for the better to come out. And for my friends, family and sports, they must listen; I have no time for them. OK. I have to achieve the distinguished character during the demonstration of the process of clinical inquiry. I want my critical questions to be comprehensive. I have an ambition; my thought process should be precise and accurate. I desire to have the ability to interpret and evaluate texts with the distinction. I long I should achieve distinction in commands over interpreting thesis and supporting evidences. In the critical evaluation of point of view, I wish ti be able to synthesize source-texts with purpose and precision and accuracy. My college intends to provide me with the abilities to face the world in future. For the purpose, a shift in policies is always imminent. For instance, Tunxis has implemented a new policy in which â€Å"grades’ have been eliminated and the â€Å"Course Ability Equivalent Scores† introduced. No doubt the method is to strengthen me with my improved knowledge, it has added to burdens over me. My instructor will no longer correct my errors, instead I have to discover and diagnose my problems myself. The responsibility of my success or failure is thus on my own shoulders now. My pleasures, how can I find time for you? My Composition Course aims at developing inside me skills of writing, my ability to read, evaluate, analyze and synthesize texts and ideas. With the standard use of English, my course is to enable me to writ e and revise essays with due formats. Attendance, Conduct and deadline, all I always meet with satisfaction. Essays need a high degree of concentration and learning. It is, therefore, quite a tougher job to do. To get it done to the satisfaction, my time is shortened again for my hobbies. Let me say good bye to my hobbies right now. Beg your pardon hobbies; it is to say off with you forthwith. According to Carter, â€Å"Integrity† is to fully understand the right and the wrong. When â€Å"right†

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Explain the position of Dualism and physicalism Essay

Explain the position of Dualism and physicalism - Essay Example This philosophical thought has been applied for instance in the mind-body relation to claim that a human being is a physical system with the central nervous system and brain without a mind or soul (Crumley 5). For instance, physicalists postulate that the mind or soul is not an immaterial substance but occurs in physical form that is consisted of cells at one level which can be broken down further into atoms at their smallest level. This makes the mind and the brain to be same substance in an outlay where the mind is a consequence of neural connections. This positioning of the mind and the brain based on the assumptions make in physicalism means that damage to the brain translates to the same damage in the mind. This is true for example in the case of the brain which contains multiple elongated cells referred to as neurons whose function is to carry specific impulses. Contacts between neurons take place through points of contact named synapses. A specific neuron in the human nervous system is the C-fibers whose function is to supply the skin with nerves and transmit pain impulses. According to Physicalist, when a person experiences an occasion of pain or occurrence of a thought these are believed to be physical events related to C-fibers transmitting or certain electrical and chemical events taking place in the brain and central nervous system (Crumley 64). Apart from the assumption that the mind and brain are the same, another condition of physicalism is based on the belief that the physical world is causally closed. The thesis of causal closure fundamentally argues that any physical event must equally have a physical cause. This assumption by the Physicalists means that for every occurrence in world, there must be an explanation on the basis of causal interactions occurring at the physical level. Therefore, this worldview is

Friday, January 31, 2020

Environmental Analysis Essay Example for Free

Environmental Analysis Essay Landfill gas is generated during the decomposition of organic substances in municipal and industrial wastes. Since it is made up of powerful greenhouse gases, primarily methane gas and carbon dioxide, the prevention of escape to atmosphere is desirable and has the added benefit of being utilised as a renewable energy source (Clarke Energy, 2014). One such company focussed on dealing with this issue is Landfill Gas Industries Pty Ltd (L.G.I. Pty Ltd) they are ‘a specialist designer, supplier, installer, and operator of systems that capture, extract and burn gas produced in landfills’ (L. G.I. Pty Ltd, 2014). L.G.I. Pty Ltd has several opportunities that could impact the company’s operations in Australia, such as government regulation, the number of councils and landfills available and the fact that all landfills require a solution to the landfill gas problem. However L.G.I. Pty Ltd also has several threats potentially impacting its operations, for example from large energy generators, large waste companies and opposition to landfill gas. With the continuing pace of global environmental awareness and a general growing consensus about the potential damage of greenhouse gases, the Australian Government may introduction legislation and associated taxation such as the use of carbon credits that are designed punish landfill owners with unabated gas emissions (Department of the Environment, 2011). A company such as L.G.I. Pty Ltd is well placed to install systems that can reduce these emissions and in turn reduce the financial penalties of operating a landfill, many of which are run by local councils and therefore paid for directly by ratepayers. With 565 local government councils in Australia (The Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, 2014) and each with a need to process its residents’ garbage, many of which themselves operate landfill sites and/or have legacy landfills within their boundaries. Whilst the market has a finite limit there is considerable appeal for councils to adapt such technologies at their landfills and has the potential to generate ‘huge savings for [councils] and the environment’ (Landfill Gas Pty Ltd, 2008). L.G.I. Pty Ltd is committed to take advantage of councils’ needs by having ‘developed successful landfill gas installations on sites of all scales across Australia’ (Landfill Gas Industries Pty Ltd, 2014). Wherever there is a landfill, there is potential dangers aside from the environmental concerns unless mitigation techniques are employed, such as the risk of fire and explosion which for example  occurred in Loscoe, England in 1986 when a nearby house was destroyed (Danish EPA, 2001). There is also the potential of gas migration to occur below the surface and in turn contaminate the groundwater (Environment Protection Authority, 2008). If a landfill site is not suitable for electricity production, gas mitigation is nonetheless desired for safety and hygiene reasons. L.G.I. Pty Ltd ‘manufactures and installs its own range of state of the art flares’ (Landfill Gas Industries Pty Ltd, 2014) allowing the flammable gases to be safely burnt off. Therefore all current and legacy landfill sites are potential business for L.G.I. Pty Ltd The first major threat to L.G.I. Pty Ltd comes from existing large energy generators, such as AGL, Origin and Energy Australia, these 3 companies have a combined market share of over 60% of the energy sector (IBISWorld, 2014). As these companies have the need to supply electricity to their customers they have the desire to source viable and sustainable generation methods, AGL for example already ‘owns and operates several renewable landfill gas and biogas (sewage) generation facilities across Australia’ (AGL, 2014). If these companies decide to expand in this sector and compete for this resource, they could undermine L.G.I. Pty Ltd’s potential simply by means of more efficient access to financial capital required to setup and by the greater potential political bargaining power they possess such as when competing for tenders. Such as with large energy generators, large waste companies also pose a potential threat for L.G.I. Pty Ltd. Many councils utilise outsourced waste collection, processing, recycling and landfill operators to fulfil their needs. Operators such as Veolia and Sita which operate landfills as part of their business must ‘manage odour across [their] landfills in accordance with the Environmental Protection Licence’ (Sita, 2014). These operators have their own equipment and methods for gas mitigation and therefore pose a threat to L.G.I. Pty Ltd if more councils outsource their waste needs to private companies, they in turn aside from environmental requirements have a commercial obligation to seek profit. There is nonetheless opposition to companies that seek to turn landfill gas into electricity, for several reasons such as its relative high costs, local air pollution but namely it suggests that it is acceptable to dump waste at landfill sites rather than pursue waste minimisa tion or recycling initiatives (Shrank, 2011). Veolia states that it ‘encourages waste  minimisation and recycling’ (Veolia, 2014), however if a financial incentive exists if it fails that endeavour then people are right to be sceptical. The threat of a change in public opinion and awareness towards waste disposal could potentially impact L.G.I. Pty Ltd, particularly if they are seen as not encouraging waste minimisation or if their operations produce an unacceptable amount of air pollution. Landfill gas is an unavoidable by-product of our modern society and it possess several risks if left unmanaged to public health and safety. L.G.I. Pty Ltd is well placed to mitigate these risks and also potentially return a financial benefit to its clients, specifically local councils. In terms of opportunities, L.G.I. Pty Ltd faces a finite barrier in terms of number of landfills in Australia, it may seek to export its expertise to markets overseas to pursue further growth. It may also be of benefit to lobby government to encourage further legislation and taxation penalties regarding greenhouse gas emissions, potentially expanding its market. Of the threats facing L.G.I. Pty Ltd, the biggest is represented by existing the large companies in the electricity generating and waste disposal sectors, who invariable have better access to capital and lobbying power to further develop this industry. Finally, public opinion could negatively impact L.G.I. Pty Ltd if they are seen to be exploiting a resource which ideally should be minimised in the first instance. Clarke Energy, (2014). Landfill Gas | Landfill gas generator. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Landfill Gas Industries Pty Ltd, (2014). Landfill Gas Industries Renewable Electricity Leaders. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Department of the Environment, (2011). Capture and combustion of landfill gas. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. The Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, (2014). Local Government. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Landfill Gas Pty Ltd, (2008). Landfill Gas Pty Ltd. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Danish EPA, (2001). Miljstyrelsen. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Environment Protection Authority, (2008). Guidelines for groundwater investigation and monitoring for landfills. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. IBISWorld, (2014). Major Companies. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. AGL, (2014). Landfill Gas and Biogas. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Sita, (2014). Landfill Gas Management | SITA Australia. [Online] Available at: s/landfills/landfill-gas-management/ [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Shrank, S. (2011). Opposition to Waste-to-Energy: A Waste of Waste?. [Online] Worldwatch Institute. Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014]. Veolia, (2014). Recovering Resources from Waste Veolia Australia and New Zealand. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2014].

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Geometry Golden :: essays research papers

T0e ancient Parthenon in Athens is an example of the Golden rectangle used in Architecture. These are examples of the Golden Rectangle in Art. The Chambered Nautilus Is an example of the spiral shape that fits inside the golden rectangle. Constructing the Golden Rectangle Using The Golden Ratio The ratio, called the Golden Ratio, is the ratio of the length to the width of what is said to be one of the most aesthetically pleasing rectangular shapes. This rectangle, called the Golden Rectangle, appears in nature and is used by humans in both art and architecture. The Golden Ratio can be noticed in the way trees grow, in the proportions of both human and animal bodies, and in the frequency of rabbit births. The ratio is close to 1.618. Whoever first discovered these intriguing manifestations of geometry in nature must have been very excited about the discovery. A study of the Golden Ratio provides an intereting setting for enrichement activities for older students. Ideas involved are: ratio, similarity, sequences, constructions, and other concepts of algebra and goemetry. Finding the Golden Ratio. Consider a line segment of a length x+1 such that the ratio of the whole line segment x+1 to the longer segment x is the same as the ratio of the line segment, x, to the shorter segment, 1. ? Thus, ?. The resulting quadratic equation is ?. A positive root of this equation is ?, or 1.61803... This irrational number, or its reciprocal ?, is known as the Golden Ratio, phi . Now we will construct the Golden Rectangle. First we will construct a squate ABCD. ? Now we will construct the midpoint E of DC. ? Extend DC. With center E and radius EB, draw an arc crossing EC extended at C. ? Construct a perpendicular to DF at F. ? Extend AB to intersect the perpendicular at G. ? AGFD is a Golden Rectangle. Now we will measure the length and width of the rectangle. Then we will find the ratio of the length to the width.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Digital Signatures

Signature is an important aspect of any document or agreement between two parties. Only handwritten signatures are valid for legal documents. The modern world is currently doing lot of proposals and agreements through computers and internet. In order to use in the online documents, technologists has developed a new signature method called digital signature. This paper examines the technology, validity and reliability of digital signatures Introduction Digital signature is an electronic signature which is used to identify the validity of a document.With the help of digital signature one can verify that the message he received is original and unchanged. Nobody can reject the fatherhood of a message if it is signed digitally. Digital signature is a process which involves some kind of encryption and decryption of data. The person who sends the message will encrypt the message which can be decrypt only by the addressee. â€Å"A digital signature is a â€Å"stamp† places on the dat a which is unique to somebody, and is very difficult to forge.In addition, the signature assures that any changes made to the data that has been signed cannot go undetected. † (David Youd) Digital signatures 3 Digital signature – Technology â€Å"After creating a document, using special software one can obtain a message hash (mathematical summary) of the message. Then using a private key obtained from a public-private key authority, the message is been hashed. This encrypted hash is the digital signature of the message.The receiver of the message makes a hash of the received message to ensure the validity of the message. He will then make use of the public key provided by the sender to decrypt the message hash. If the hashes matched, then the received message is valid. † (Digital signature) Legality of Digital signature Many countries like, US, European Union, and Australia have approved digital signatures legally just like other handwritten signature documents. Most of the e-commerce activities are making use of digital signatures to authenticate the documants.â€Å"Stimulated by the development of the American Bar Association Digital Signature Guidelines, electronic signature legislation began with the Utah Digital Signature Act, which was enacted in 1995 and focused solely on issues raised by cryptography-based digital signatures. Soon thereafter, legislation was introduced in several other states† (Thomas J. Smedinghoff and Ruth Hill Bro) Digital signatures 4 Issues and concerns of digital signatures Like most of the other secure documents have suffered by the intrusion of hackers, digital signature technology is also under the constant threats from the e-frauds.â€Å"How do you verify the actual consent and authority of a person relating to these new electronically-signed transactions, or know that the electronic signature wasn't stolen from a PC by some inside or outside entity? † (Lauren Weinstein) Conclusion Digital si gnatures are extensively used in e-commerce activities. It is legally approved in many countries just like the hand written signatures. Like most of the other secure documents in internet, the digital signatures are also under threat from intruders or hackers.

Monday, January 6, 2020

The War Of The American Civil War - 970 Words

Image Over the course of four years, what would later be called the bloodiest time in U.S. History, approximately 625,000 lives were taken during the American Civil War. Although the individuals who fought and died in both the North and South were arguably against each other politically, economically, socially, and emotionally one main point lost to them was that they had common ground in being a part of a newly formed nation in America. It can be argued that conflict arises in all parts of human nature and with America supporting a population of young men with newly found power and influence after the ratification of the U. S. Constitution it perhaps should not be such a shock that so many lives were lost to not only to war, but disease as emotions of the North and South divided people and stood them against one another. As we look back over history and conflicts as they arise among populations, one central theme of war is the possession of resources from which profit can be made. The areas of the North and South were not immune to this trend and as the divided issue of slavery became more prominent, conflict grew. Between the years of 1854 to 1856, Kansas and events therein played a vital role in the outbreak of civil war. By 1854, Republicans of the North sought to end the forward movement of slavery while the Democrats in the South supported the advancement of slavery west and farther south, thus supporting the Kansas-Nebraska Act, as it went along with their politicalShow MoreRelatedAmerican War And The American Civil War1551 Words   |  7 Pageswhich then caused the Southern states of America to decide to leave the American Union and create their own Southern Confederacy. This tore our nation apart. The American Civil War had begun and the very people that were once neighbors had each otherâ⠂¬â„¢s blood on their hands. Many American lives had been lost. The American lives lost in the Civil War even exceeded the number of American lives lost during World War I and World War II. We were divided. The North wanted to reunite with the southern statesRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1376 Words   |  6 PagesThe American Civil War was arguably the most important war in the history of the country. The War of Independence may have allowed American to become its’ own country, but the Civil War resulted in something even more important than that, the end of slavery in the southern states. All of the issues that caused the Civil war were based around slavery, such as states’ rights that involved how slavery would be handled in each state, and trying to preserve the Union since the south seceded from the northRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War856 Words   |  4 PagesSlavery may have been established as the catalyst of the American Civil War, but t he beginning of the dispute began in the time of the Revolution with a weak decentralized government under the Articles of Confederation. Later gained momentum as territorial expansion set Americans against each other on debating whether the new states should be slave states or free states, it questioned the power of the Federal government regarding state rights, and brought about instability in the unity of the UnitedRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1618 Words   |  7 Pages A Civil War is a battle between the same citizens in a country. The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the independence for the Confederacy or the survival of the Union. By the time Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1861, in the mist of 34 states, the constant disagreement caused seven Southern slave states to their independence from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, generally known as the South, grew to include elevenRe ad MoreThe War Of The American Civil War991 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Civil War is known to most as the bloodiest war anyone has ever witnessed. It claimed the life of thousands of Americans and animosity that was built up over several years prior to it can be to blame. Most people think that slavery was the cause of this battle, and although slavery did play a part, it was not the main cause. The biggest roles played in the American Civil War were states’ rights, unfair bills, feelings of inferiority and threats to economy. The tension started duringRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1324 Words   |  6 PagesThere were many events that led to the cause of one of America’s most devastating war, the American Civil War. The American Civil War was an unfortunate war that cost more than the lives of six hundred thousand people. Events such as the Missouri Compromise, Kansas Nebraska Act, Dred Scott Decision, and the Election of Abraham Lincoln resulted in the four yearlong battles between the Northern and Southern states due to social and economic differences on the idea of slavery. In the 19th century,Read MoreThe War Of The American Civil War Essay1472 Words   |  6 PagesThe American Civil War lasted from April 12, 1861 to May 9, 1865. It was the bloodiest war in American history, killing approximately 620,000 soldiers in total. The War was fought and won by the North, ensuring that all the United States would stay united and slavery would be illegal in The United States. However, history is one of the most complicated things in the world. It’s also one of the most important things in the world because history is what made the present possible. Historians have debatedRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War960 Words   |  4 Pagesslavery even if it meant war caused peace in this nation. Slavery was the vital cause of the American Civil War. The north and the south both had their differences on how to run the country. People in the North believed in unity and that slavery should not exist because â€Å"all men are created equally.† On the o ther hand, the South believed in continuing slavery. People tried to talk it out and come to a middle ground after both sides compromising, however that didn’t work and caused war. Ideological differencesRead MoreThe Civil War And The American War1318 Words   |  6 PagesThe question of what caused the Civil War is debatable because there are several events that may have influenced the war such as the Western Expansion, Manifest Destiny and the Mexican-American War. The war also stems from slavery, the North and South basically fought over whether or not slavery should be permitted. Another point that may have influenced the Civil War is the economic and social structure of the country, which also falls under slavery because the South main source of income was slaveryRead MoreThe War Of The American Civil War1439 Words   |  6 PagesWhen the American Civil War began in the spring of 1861, those flocking to enlistment stations in states both north and south chiefly defined their cause as one of preservation. From Maine to Minnesota, young men joined up to preserve the Union. From Virginia to Texas, their future foes on the battlefield enlisted to preserve a social order, a social order at its core built on the institution of slavery and racial superiority . Secession had not been framed by prominent Southerners like Robert Toombs